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Referencing & Quotations

   Writing references and quotations


¯  Occasionally you will want to copy a comment or definition exactly as it is written. This is called a quotation and rules must be followed.

  

¯  Anything that is copied word for word must be enclosed in inverted commas.  After the quotation, place in brackets the author?s surname, the date of publication and the relevant page number. e.g. (Walker, 1992, p.12).

 

        ¯  This will refer the reader to the end of the assignment where the full details are available in 

             the Bibliography.

 

 ¯  In the essay, reference should be made to quotations or diagrams used to support the argument you are developing.

EXAMPLE:

When an earthquake occurs, seismic waves radiate out in all directions from the focus or hypocentre, the point of origin of the earthquake?.(Butler, 1999, p80)

 

If you use quotations, diagrams or pictures in your essay, you must acknowledge them to avoid plagiarism. (Stealing someone elses work) 

 

REFERENCES AND QUOTATIONS IN THE BODY OF THE ESSAY

 

Short Quotations

Short quotations (no more than three lines) can be shown by inverted commas e.g.

 

When an earthquake occurs, seismic waves radiate out in all directions from the focus or hypocentre, the point of origin of the earthquake? (Butler, 1999, p80)

Longer Quotations

Longer quotations are indented and separated from the rest of the paragraph by leaving a line above and below the quotations.

 

The crust of the earth is in a state of continual change, although most of the changes are very slow.   There is a balance between the wearing down of the earth?s surface by erosion, and uplift by tectonic process.  Tectonic action is the result of forces from within the earth moving the earth?s crust.

(Butler, 1999,p4)

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